Humanism in The Nikaya Literature (An old and Rare Book)
|Author:||Bhikkhu Duc Truong|
|Publisher:||Eastern Book Linkers|
|Other Details||9.00 X 6.00 inch|
As a humanist, the Buddha revolutionized thoughts and traditions of ancient India. He looked upon man's wayfaring in the world as a very true thing. He urged man to put forth his own energy to attain the unattained, to master the un- mastered 'and to realize the unrealized, and that in possession of that state man would live happily. Buddhist humanism considers man's position is supreme. Man is his own master and there is no other being or power higher than him judging over his destiny; his success or failure lies in his own will, choice and strength.
In the book dealt with 'Humanism in the Nikaya literature' including of seven chapters. It begins with the general introduction of what are the meanings of humanism and what are the teachings of Buddha in the Nikaya literature or Early Buddhist literature.
To respect, Buddhist humanism considers man's position is supreme. Man is his own master and there is no other being or power higher than him judging over his destiny; his success or failure lies in his own will, choice and strength. 'To become a friend, an intimate of that which is good and righteous ... you yourself must take into your life diligence in good things." Human life, or more properly human conditions, is of supreme value, not only because of life itself but also because of the fact that human welfare, material, moral and spiritual, and even final emancipation are gained from it and in it.
Here I have dealt with 'Humanism in the Nikaya literature' including of seven chapters. It begins with the iv general introduction of what’re the meanings of humanism and what are the teachings of Buddha in the Nikaya literature or Early Buddhist literature. In chapter two it mentions to the eight as based on epistemology. With these kinds of knowledge man can understand profoundly phenomenon things as what they are (see in chapter three: the perspective of existence). The relationship man to man in society is built on structure of equality, democracy and freedom (chapter four: the social structure). For maintaining this social structure and emancipating mind from the defilements each man has to consider to practice moral conduct (sea), as well developing concentration (samadhi) and wisdom (panna) as the way of life (see in chapter five: the transcendence of ethic). Furthermore, Buddhist humanism expresses the peaceful attitude to humankind through the thought of non- violence (ahirilsa), no-self or agelessness (ananta) as well the dimension of harmony and peace as loving-kindness (metta), compassion (karu1Ja)" sympathetic joy (mudita) and equanimity (upekkhya) as well as patience (khanti), tolerance (adhivasana), humility (nihatamana), contentment (santutthi) and charity (daya) (see in chapter six: attitude to peace). Lastly, in the chapter conclusion it emphasizes to the Ultimate goal of Buddhist humanism is the attaining of Nibbana which highest state of Epistemology, Existence, Social structure, Ethic, and Peace. That is the path of life and the liberation of mind from all ills, sorrow and suffering by emphasizing the need of the destruction of all egoism, the abandonment of selfish cravings, the ejection of all eagerness of sensuous desire.
According to Humanistic philosophers, humanism originated from the Latin humanities (paddies and philanthropic combined). It is implying ontological individualism and the guest for the perfection of the human spirit through the consummation of man's inherent potentialities is subjectivist and optimistic in its orientation. 1 The term 'humanism' could be explained as a single word, which expresses briefly the intellectual ideals of the renaissance. Broadly speaking humanism emphasized the capability of man to control his own fate and to achieve a happier state. However it is obvious that the humanists of the renaissance believed highly of the nobility and potentialities of man.
This was a period of stagnation for Occidental civilization and has been rightly referred to as the Dark Ages. Humanism laid the important role in the realm of individual human action, and so the hold that their gods and myths had exercised gradually diminished. Classical Greece hosted, in the 5th century BC, an almost miraculous flowering of the arts, most notably in sculptural representation of the human form; at the same time Athenian democracy flourishing under the even hand of Pericles (495-429 BC) were radically egalitarian, but also the cause of the instability and warfare that finally ended the Golden Age of Greece. However, Greek humanism continued to stand for the Mediterranean culture of the ancient world right up to the end of the Roman Empire. In the 5th century AD after the Roman Empire collapsed, Europe in time found a new source of unity in Christianity - a religion that had at its core a humanistic vision of the nobility and dignity of humankind as created by God. But the medieval Christian view held that humankind was a community underpinned by theology and the ecclesiastical system. In other hand, humanity depends on common destiny, which is decided by the Church.
This view brought about the explosion during the Renaissance, with the revival of concentration in the non- Christian Greek and Latin literature of the classical world. Renaissance humanism is opposed to credit denominationalism and theological orthodoxy or ecclesiastical fanaticism. As people rediscovered classical humanism, the individual came to be seen once again as a free agent. The Italian renaissance humanist Picodella Mirandola (1463-1494) emphasized that humankind's dignity was the supreme value, and humanity's place was indisputably at the center of the world. Humanism was revived after the long time to lose consciousness in the 14th century in Italy and spread to other European countries.
Book's Contents and Sample Pages
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