Indian Philosophy: Past and Present

Indian Philosophy: Past and Present

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Book Specification

Item Code: UAN019
Author: Dr. Ramaswamy
Publisher: Krishna Prakashan, Varanasi
Language: English
Edition: 2018
ISBN: 9788193797600
Pages: 250
Other Details 8.90 X 5.90 inch
Weight 440 gm

Book Description

This book appears to be the first general introduction to English speaking students, according to the British and perhaps other English speaking universities according to 'Darshan' in the Indian tradition. It shows how Indian philosophers have seen such discoveries that we can make sure that we know anything despite the meaning of words. Indian philosophy is like 'western' philosophy or part of it, which will make it unnecessary and reluctant. It is interesting that it is somewhere else with philosophers, as it discusses the same philosophical problems in different ways. But there is a problem of translation in most books on Indian tradition, especially if we compare one of them. Philosophy is the systematic study of the foundations of human knowledge with emphasis on the conditions of its validity and finding answers.

Dr. Ramaswamy is an Associate Professor with the Jesus and Mary College under the Universi-ty of Delhi. He has Master in Philosophy .He has received the Fulbright Postdoctoral fellowship and also the UGC research award. He has authored several books on Theory of Philosophy of Indian Relgion, History of Philosophy.

In the history of the Indian subcontinent, following the establishment of an Aryan-Vedic culture, the development of philosophical and religious thought over a period of two millennia gave rise to what came to be called the six schools of astika, or orthodox, Indian or Hindu philosophy. These schools have come to be synonymous with the greater religion of Hinduism. The origins of Hindu philosophy are to be traced in Vedic speculations (circa 1500 B.C.E.) about the universe and Rta - universal order. Other major texts with philosophical implications include the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahma Sutra, from circa 1000 B.C.E. to 500 B.C.E.

Hindu philosophy constitutes an integral part of the culture of Southern Asia, and is the first of the Dharmic philosophies which were influential throughout the Far East. The great diversity in thought and practice of Hinduism is nurtured by its liberal universalism.

Centuries before the western (notably Greek) tradition developed its own forms of philosophical speculation, India already had well-developed schools of philosophy. Most followed spiritual and idealistic lines involving speculation about the unity in diversity, giving Hindu polytheism a clear theistic bent. In these forms of speculation, Brahman was often seen as the underlying, unitary and universal Being of which the various divinities were mere expressions. At the same time, Brahman was often seen as being ultimately one with Atman, the equivalent of the human soul. Nevertheless, atheistic and materialistic philosophy also existed in the same environment.

The extent of the direct link between this philosophical speculation and the later Greek philosophy is a matter of dispute. An influence of Indian thought on Middle Eastern, including Hebrew, thought has also been suggested. What is certain is that, to one degree or another, the Ancient Hindu tradition and the Ancient (though less ancient) Greek tradition, being both part of the Indo-European civilization has interacted, with India being the source. Plato in particular is often said to have been under the influence of the Hindu wisdom tradition.

All the schools of Indian philosophy are characterized by some common themes. Indian philosophy conceives of man as spiritual in nature, and relates him to a spiritual or metaphysical concept of the universe. Indian philosophy is intimately associated with practice in everyday life. It takes an introspective approach to reality, concerning itself with knowledge of the inner life and self of man (atmavidya), rather than with the nature and structure of the physical world. Indian philosophy is predominantly idealistic. Intuition is often accepted as the only method for knowing the ultimate truth; truth is generally not "known" intellectually, but must be "realized." Indian philosophy accepts the authority of ancient philosophers and innovations are represented as extensions of older systems of thought. Flexibility and the tendency to synthesize are also characteristic of Indian philosophy. Indian schools generally embody the doctrines of karma and rebirth; man must be perfected before he can achieve salvation. Except for the Carvaka school, all accept the moral order of the universe, and justice as the law of moral life.

**Contents and Sample Pages**

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