Pre, Proto and Early Historic Cultures of Krishna- Tungabhadra Valley (An Old & Rare Book)

Pre, Proto and Early Historic Cultures of Krishna- Tungabhadra Valley (An Old & Rare Book)

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Book Specification

Item Code: UAO184
Author: Dr. B. Subrahmanyam
Publisher: Bharatiya Kala Prakashan
Language: English
Edition: 1997
ISBN: 8186050051
Pages: 370
Other Details 11.00 X 9.00 inch
Weight 1.24 kg

Book Description

The present book attempts to provide a systematic and scientific account of the culture and civilization of Man in Krishna Tungabhadra Valley of AP. right from pre historic times to the early historic period, based on extensive field work .e. explorations and excavations, besides critical examination of the material evidences encountered. Dr. B. Subrahmanyam, provides a clear picture of the life of ancient man right from pre-historic times to the level of urbanization through various stages The book also encapsulates the original discoveries met with during explorations and excavations and he interprets the evidence in proper cultural and chronological contexts. Some of the discoveries are indeed very fascinating as they were not reported either from South-India or from the sub-continent earlier.

For examples, the occurrence of middle palaeolithic tools in association with the skeletal remains of Bos nomadicus in an end pleistocene section and also Macro-facies in Mesolithic cultural context, near rock art cave sites on the banks of the river Krishna, really are remarkable in the pre-historic cultural context of the valley. The discovery of a new stone age tool-kit in neolithic culture and wooden coffins in a pit burial in megalithic context from this valley, considered as unique examples, are yet to be reported from the sub-continent in proto-historic context of India. A critical examination of the above evidences seems to attest to the theory of cultural diffusion into the valley from west Asia during proto-his toric times. The book also suggests that Saivisim flourished in the valley through early brick temples, during the Satavahana times (1st-2nd c. A.D.), near the confluence points, whereas Buddhism was predominant in the coastal belt of Andhradesa in the lower reaches of the valley. Numismatic evidences, in the form of Roman, Satavahana and Maharathi coins in association with early brick structures in this valley, once again confirms the prevalence of maritime trade contacts with the other pars of the world through this valley. On the whole, the book critically examines fresh archaeological data unearthed not only from the nuclear zones of this valley but also from the peripheral areas, in order to obtain an overall picture of the life of ancient man right from pre-historic to early historic times.

Born on 27-08-1950 at Guntur in Andhra Pradesh, Dr. B. Subrahmanyam had received his school education in Guntur. He pursued his Post-Graduation in Ancient Indian History and Archaeology in the Post Graduate Centre at Guntur and took his M.A. degree in 1974 from Andhra University, Waltair. Afterwards he joined as a Technical Assistant in the State Archaeological Department, Hyderabad in 1975. Since then, he actively participated in explorations. major excavations and transplantation of temples especially from the submersible region of Srisailm Project. Alongside, he worked for Ph.D. degree on Proto and Early Historic Cultures of Mahbubnagar region in Andhra Pradesh and was awarded degree in 1956 by Mysore University, Mysore. In that, the author has made an attempt to a critical study of all the available cultural data and also bring out a comprehensive account of three region, by adding fresh archaeological discoveries. He also obtained P.G. diploma in Public Relations from Dr. B. R Ambedkar Open University, Hyderabad in 1983. He contributed a good number of research articles to various reputed journals and also to Indian History Congress, A.P. History Congress etc. Apart from his participation in numerous seminars, he has to his credit two published works, viz. Thotlakonda-A Buddhist site in A.P. (1992) and Directory of Monuments: Antiquarian Remains in Anantapur District A.P. Vol-I (1993).

At present he is working as Research and Training Officer in the Department of Archaeology and Museums, Hyderabad, and is actively associated with the preparation of Directory of Monuments of Andhra Pradesh and also in finalising the excavation reports of the department.

For his outstanding discovery of Buddhist relic caskets from Bavikonda - A Buddhist site in Andhra Pradesh, he has been granted an incentive award in 1994, in addition to personal appreciations from the highest authorities of Government of Andhra Pradesh. His zeal for research, keeps him busy in pursuing various untouched areas in the field of Archaeology in Andhra Pradesh.

Study of river valley civilizations is a desideratum for understanding and arriving at a complete picture of mankind through different periods. The State of Andhra Pradesh endowed as it is with vast river basins like Godavari and Krishna, in addition to several tributaries such as Manjeera. Tungabhadra and Pennar, besides a large number of rivulets, provided suitable habitat for man to live since times immemorial. The primitive man who occupied the valleys of these rivers left behind his tools and other artefacts to provide a glimpse into the style of his living. Thus the Godavari valley in Adilabad and Karimnagar Districts, which yielded a good number of sites dotted with material remains has been ably studied by several scholars, similarly, the Krshna Tungabhadra valley in Andhra Pradesh, draining the districts of Mahabub nagar-Kurnool on either bank also contains innumerable sites, belonging to different periods of human history since old stone age. Few isolated attempts were made to locate and identify them by some individual scholars like L.A. Cammiade, M.C. Burkitt, F.R. Allchin, N. Issac, Captain New Bold, A.H. Longhurst, K.V. Soundara Rajan, M.L.K. Murthy etc. and other organizations like Archaeological Survey of India and Birla Archaeological and Cultural Research Institute, Hyderabad. Few isolated efforts were made to explore and collate the data in their proper chronological context on a wide spectrum. Further, certain problems like the presence of perforated pottery in megalithic burials and the significance of ash mounds, remain unexplained satisfactorily. Similarly, the origin and diffusion of Iron Age culture and emergence of state and urban centres. Hence, Dr. Subrahmanyam, a young and energetic scholar. equipped with sound knowledge of pre, proto and early history, besides vast experience in conducting explorations and excavations on scientific basis and with his capacity to analyse and study the excavated materials and remains, took up the work of studying the river valley civilizations of Krishna-Tungabhadra valley in Andhra Pradesh and has successfully brought out his thesis, incorporating the results of his probings, spread over a large area in the districts of Mahabubnagar and Kurnool, as also other outlying areas in the periphery. In this, he has carefully taken into account the previous works, and examined the data encountered by them and critically examined and explained the significance of few unique and interesting discoveries.

Among the few interesting highlights of the present work are the discovery of remains of Bos Namadicus in association with middle palaeolithic tool-kit at Yapaladevipadu on the right bank of the river Krishna, for, it is a unique example and first of its kind so far not reported from the Krishna basin. Similarly, the collection of a new type of stone age tools, such as disc-knives, disecum axes, discoids etc. assignable to Neolithic stone age industry, from Somasila in Nallamalai hill ranges, near Krishna- Bhavanasi confluence which opens a new vista, especially in establishing cultural contacts with other parts of the sub-continent. So far, such type of tool-kit has not been reported from the pecked and ground stone industry of neolithic culture in India. Another important discovery is the existence of family burials, as gleaned through the excavations at Chinnamarur, a Neolithic-Chalcolithic cemetery, which contained a group of skeletons in extended manner.

Further, the book also encapsulates very precisely, systematically and accurately the entire cultural data unearthed, especially from the various megalithic burial complexes in the valley. The most fascinating and interesting discovery of this culture is the occurrence of wooden coffins in a pit burial at Uppalapadu, near the confluence of the rivers Krishna-Tungabhadra, the first to be reported from South-India in Iron age context, since the lone example of Mohenjadaro. This confirms the theory of cultural diffusion from time to time, from West-Asia to this valley during proto-historic times. Interestingly, a pair of cist chambered burials with stone benches inside, for excarnation of corpses at Chagatur are considered as the classic examples under sepulchral architecture of megalithic period. These burials were fenced with dry stone masonary wall, to keep away the intrusion of stray animals.

The present work entitled "Pre, Proto and Early historic cultures of Krishna-Tungabhadra valley" (with special reference to Andhra Pradesh) embodies the results of my study based mainly on the field work i.c. explorations and excavations conducted in the river valley, bounded by the districts of Mahbubnagar, Nalgonda and Kurnool. Recently, excavations have been conducted by the State Archaeological Department, especially in the submersible areas of Srisailam Hydro Electric Project, constructed across the river Krishna at Patalaganga near Srisailam, threatening a good number of sites belonging to Pre, Proto and Early historic periods, both in Mahbubnagar and Kurnool districts, which hitherto were unnoticed. The river valley occupies a unique place, comparable with Raichur doab in South India in Archaeological context.

Earlier, attempts were made by scholars to record the lithic appendages lying on the banks of the rivers and rivulets in this river valley. Though a good number of sites were explored and excavated, no comprehensive study of the valley, right from Pre historic to Early historic times, incorporating new archaeological data is published so far. Except for few works like Utur excavations (F.R. Allchin 1961) followed by Veerapuram (BDCRI 1984) and Satanikota (ASI- 1980), no substantial work was done projecting various cultural aspects of the river valley in detail. Hence, in order to fill this lacunae and to highlight the cultural potentiality of the river valley and its adjoining regions, which are rich in archaeological wealth, I ventured to take up the work and made a systematic study of the material obtained from both explorations and excavations. In this, I had the benefit of studying the excavated data personally. pertaining to the subject and thus gained first-hand information. Further, I have had the privilege of participating and conducting major excavations in this river valley, which helped me in studying the cultural materials in their proper chronological context. The results of the salvage operations undertaken by other agencies like Archaeological Survey of India and Birla Archacological & Cultural Research Institute, Hyderabad have also been fully utilized to obtain an overall picture of ancient man, of this river valley.

I had the privilege of taking part in all the major excavations conducted at a host of sites like leej, Hulikal, Chinnamarur, Peddamarur, Veerapuram, Ramapuram, Gandlur and Huzurnagar, besides the areas, not far away from the valley, which enabled me to gain first hand knowledge of the si their stratigraphy, by studying the material in their exact locus. As such the conclusions arrived at, can be claimed as reliable and authentic. And The present work is divided into six chapters. The first chapter deals with a brief introduction of the physiographical features of the Krishna-Tungabhadra valley, its river systems, mountains, geology, climate, rainfall, flora fauna etc. and a brief review of the previous works done in the region.

The second chapter provides a back drop of the pre-historic cultures of the region, ranging from early palacolithic to mesolithic periods. In the third chapter, an attempt is made to provide a comprehensive picture of the various neolithic settlements in the valley and their bearing on the contemporary ecological and ethnographical aspects. The fourth chapter also deals with the megalithic sites spread over the valley which throw fresh light on the constructional techniques of the funerary monuments, their religious beliefs, agriculture, economy and food habits of the people. The fifth chapter deals with a study of the development and evolution of the society from proto-historic times to the rise of urbanised communities, basing on archaeological evidence encountered. Also an attempt to analyse the structural activity of the early historic people, such as proto types of the temples built and the coinage of the times has also been made.

Lastly, the sixth chapter contains a detailed review of the work, dealing in the process, with the growth and development of the Krishna-Tungabhadra valley through various cultural periods from pre and proto to early historic times.

While pursuing this task, I have to place on record, my deep sense of gratitude to the several scholars and friends who helped me at various stages in the preparation of this work. Among them, special mention should be made of Dr.V.V.Krishna Sastry, former Director, Archaeology and Museums, Government of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad, for his kind encouragement and generous permission to study the excavated materials of the Department. I am deeply beholden to him for this.

Special mention should be made of my Guide and mentor Dr.B.K. Gururaja Rao, Reader, Department of Ancient History and Archaeology, University of Mysore, who took great pains in seeing this work through, at various stages and for his invaluable suggestions. But for his affection, encouragement and constant help, I could never have completed this work. I also express my grateful thanks to Dr. A.V. Narasimha Murthy, Professor and Head of the Department of Ancient History and Archaeology, University of Mysore, for his valuable guidance and inspiration.

**Contents and Sample Pages**

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